Research Article

Journal of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences. 30 September 2023. 191-201



  • Introduction

  • Materials and Methods

  •   Data Description

  • Results

  •   Geographical origin of the kimchi purchased

  •   Acquisition methods of the kimchi purchased

  •   Logit model analysis on kimchi consumption behavior

  • Discussion and Conclusion


Kimchi, an iconic staple in Korean cuisine, holds a central position in the dietary lifestyle of Koreans. Representing a vibrant array of fermented foods, Kimchi not only symbolizes a long-established culinary heritage but also plays an integral role in Korean dietary patterns. The scope of its consumption extends beyond being a mere side dish to being an essential ingredient in numerous traditional dishes, demonstrating its versatile and pervasive presence.

Despite the global prominence of Kimchi, academic literature examining the consumption patterns surrounding this traditional Korean food remains surprisingly sparse. Studies related to food consumption behavior have predominantly focused on the influence of sociodemographic factors, health consciousness, and dietary habits on the consumption of broad food categories such as fruits, vegetables, and fast food (Bowman and Vinyard, 2004; Drewnowski and Specter, 2004; Glanz et al., 1998). In the realm of traditional and ethnic foods, studies have been limited to examining the consumption evaluation (Koh, 2003; Lee and Kim, 2007; Sanlier, 2009; Yang and Han, 2015), analyzing the state of Korean traditional food markets (Lee, 2001; 2007; Shin, 2008), or assessing the health benefits of traditional foods (Chung et al., 1996; Lee and Lee 2011). Nevertheless, a nuanced understanding of consumption patterns, particularly regarding Kimchi, is missing from the existing literature. As for academic papers, Kim and Yoon (2012) and Kim (2013) conducted a fact-finding survey on kimchi consumption behavior nationwide or in the metropolitan area, but no in-depth study was conducted to analyze the factors of behavior. Despite its cultural significance and health benefits, Kimchi consumption is subject to the interplay of multiple individual and societal factors. Moreover, dietary transition and westernization of diets in Korea (Song and Joung, 2012) further substantiate the necessity of a rigorous investigation into the current consumption patterns of Kimchi.

Understanding these patterns is not only of academic interest but also crucial from a public health perspective. Kimchi, being a low-calorie, high-fiber food rich in vitamins and probiotics, could be a key component of healthy dietary practices (Kim and Han, 2018; Lee et al., 2014; Lim et al., 2019). Hence, insights into its consumption behavior can help guide health promotion strategies. Further, from an industry perspective, Kimchi’s consumption pattern can provide valuable insights for food businesses, particularly amidst the growing global interest in fermented foods (Marco et al., 2017).

Despite its quintessential status, the consumption behavior surrounding Kimchi has rarely been the focal point of academic exploration. It is within this context that our research seeks to delve into a thorough analysis of Kimchi consumption patterns. This study’s objectives are threefold: Firstly, to examine the frequency of Kimchi consumption; secondly, to assess the diversity of Kimchi types being consumed; and thirdly, to evaluate preference towards dishes containing Kimchi. These aspects of Kimchi consumption are explored through the lens of logit regression models, a powerful tool that enables us to capture the nuanced influences of various factors on these behaviors. Given this backdrop, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by conducting an in-depth investigation of Kimchi consumption patterns using logit regression models. This research aims to contribute a novel perspective to the existing body of knowledge on food consumption behaviors while providing meaningful implications for both public health strategies and the food industry.

The underpinnings of this research stem from a comprehensive survey focusing on the purchase and consumption behaviors related to Kimchi. Through gathering a wealth of data from a diverse pool of respondents, we aim to draw meaningful insights into these specific behaviors and comprehend the multifaceted dynamics shaping them.

This research holds significance for several reasons. From an academic perspective, it contributes to the literature on food consumption behaviors, particularly in the context of traditional and cultural food items. Furthermore, it addresses a critical knowledge gap by shedding light on the underlying factors influencing Kimchi consumption patterns, thereby extending our understanding of the complex interplay between sociodemographic characteristics and food choices.

From a practical viewpoint, the findings of this study can inform the strategies of businesses within the food industry, particularly those operating in the realm of Korean cuisine. Insights on Kimchi consumption patterns and preferences can provide valuable direction for product development, marketing, and distribution strategies. Also, understanding these behaviors can aid policymakers in promoting healthier dietary patterns and preserving traditional dietary practices.

Materials and Methods

To conduct an in-depth analysis of each household’s Kimchi consumption behavior, we asked survey respondents for demographic information and the Kimchi consumption patterns of their households (Table 1). Using these survey results, we examined how Kimchi consumption behavior differed according to the demographic characteristics of the household. We set the responses to the three questions about the presented Kimchi consumption behaviors as dependent variables and the respondent’s gender, age, educational level, number of household members, and income as independent variables. Although the independent variables are mixed with the respondent’s personal characteristics (gender, age, educational level) and household characteristics (number of household members, income), it can be seen that the respondents, who are the main purchasers of food and food materials in each household, simultaneously represent the characteristics of the household. As each respondent can only answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’, the dependent variable is a binary variable with values of 0 or 1, and thus we analyzed using a logit model.

Table 1.

Demographic information

Category Number of Respondents %
Total (2000) 100.0
Gender Male (1007) 50.4
Female (993) 49.7
Age 20 s (358) 17.9
30 s (373) 18.7
40 s (451) 22.6
50 s (465) 23.3
60 and over (353) 17.7
Highest Education Level of
Head of Household
High School Graduation or Less (588) 29.4
College Dropout/Graduation (1234) 61.7
Graduate School or Higher (178) 8.9
Number of Household Members One-Person Household (397) 19.9
Two-Person Household (440) 22.0
Three-Person Household (481) 24.1
Four-Person Household (537) 26.9
Five or More Person Household (145) 7.3
Monthly Household Income Less than 2 million won (291) 14.6
2-3 million won (321) 19.5
3-4 million won (389) 16.0
4-5 million won (319) 16.1
5-6 million won (268) 13.4
Over 6 million won (412) 20.6

The logit model used to explain each household’s Kimchi consumption behavior can be expressed as follows:


Here, x represents the variables that influence the Kimchi consumption behavior related to the question of the respondent i, and y is the Kimchi consumption behavior related to the question. If we re-express Equation (1), it becomes Equation (2).


Here, Pij denotes the probability that the respondent i has the Kimchi consumption behavior related to the question j, and the probability that the respondent i does not have the Kimchi consumption behavior related to the question j is represented by Equation (3).


Therefore, the odds ratio of the respondent i having the Kimchi consumption behavior related to the question j is given by Equation (4).


If we take the natural logarithm of both sides of Equation (4), we get Equation (5).


In this analysis, it was hypothesized that a household’s Kimchi consumption behavior would vary according to age, gender, level of education, income, and the number of household members, and a model was set up based on this assumption (Equation (6)).


Table 2 represents the information of variables used in the logit model analysis. In the analysis of kimchi consumption behavior, the dependent variable is the kimchi consumption behavior, and the explanatory variables include gender, age, education, household size, and income. This selection of explanatory variables is justified by a body of scholarly literature. Gender is significant as dietary choices and habits often differ between males and females due to a combination of biological and sociocultural factors (Bezerra et al., 2012). Age is another key determinant of food choice, with dietary habits evolving throughout the life course (Hong et al., 2020; Leng et al., 2017). Education level is often associated with dietary knowledge and thus influences food behaviors (Darmon and Drewnowski, 2008). The size of the household is relevant as it influences the purchasing and cooking habits, hence impacting food consumption patterns (Mancino, 2011). Lastly, income affects food choice through its impact on food affordability (Aggarwal et al., 2011). Therefore, these variables provide a comprehensive approach in understanding kimchi consumption behavior.

Data Description

This study utilized the results of the 2020 In-depth Survey on Vegetable Consumption Patterns conducted by the Korea Rural Economic Institute. In November 2020, a consumer survey was conducted to investigate the Kimchi consumption behavior in a total of 2,000 households. The distribution of respondents’ characteristics for this survey is summarized in Table 1 and Table 3.

Table 2.

Questions for the survey on kimchi consumption behavior (dependent variable)

Kimchi consumption behavior Yes No
I tend to consume kimchi with most meals.
I tend to purchase and consume a variety of kimchi types.
I have a preference for menu items that include kimchi
(like kimchi burgers, kimchi pancakes, kimchi stew, etc.).
Table 3.

Basic statistics (independent variable)

Variable Description Mean Standard
Gender (Female : 1) 0.497 0.500 0 1
Age 44.655 12.959 20 69
Education (Middle = 1, High = 2, College = 3, Grduate = 4) 2.780 0.616 1 4
Number of Household member 2.817 1.287 1 8
Income (1,000,000 KRW) 3.561 1.736 1 6

Out of the total 2,000 households, 50.4% were male and 49.7% were female. The age distribution was as follows: 17.9% were in their 20 s, 18.7% in their 30 s, 22.6% in their 40 s, 23.3% in their 50 s (highest proportion), and 17.7% were above 60 years old. The final educational attainment of the household head was 29.4% for high school graduates and below, 61.7% for college dropouts/graduates (highest proportion), and 8.9% for postgraduate degrees and above. In terms of household composition, 19.9% were single-person households, 22.0% were two-person households, 24.1% were three-person households, 26.9% were four-person households (highest proportion), and 7.3% were households with five or more people. Monthly household income before taxes was 14.6% for less than 2 million KRW, 19.5% for 2 million KRW-less than 3 million KRW, 16.0% for 3 million KRW-less than 4 million KRW, 16.1% for 4 million KRW-less than 45 million KRW, 13.4% for 5 million KRW-less than 6 million KRW (lowest proportion), and 20.6% for 6 million KRW and above (highest proportion).


Geographical origin of the kimchi purchased

The geographical origin of the kimchi purchased was an area of interest in this study. It was found that 87.76% of the respondents utilized domestically sourced kimchi, and the preference for domestic products increased as the age group and the number of family members rose (Table 4). The knowledge and consideration of the origin of kimchi showed a stark contrast between the younger and older generations. While a significant proportion of people in their 20 s (12.7%) and 30 s (12.7%) were unaware of the origin of the kimchi they purchased, this unawareness was considerably reduced in the older generations, where only about 2% of people over 40 claimed not to know the origin of their kimchi. This finding aligns with research on the determinants of food choice, which has found that factors such as age and household composition play a significant role in dietary decisions (Leng et al., 2017).

Table 4.

Geographical origin of the kimchi purchased

Category Number of
Unknown Other
Total (1470) 87.76 6.08 0.13 0.20 5.76 0.07
Age 20 s (240) 77.13 8.92 0.44 0.48 12.79 0.25
30 s (252) 78.77 8.41 0.04 0.04 12.70 0.04
40 s (338) 90.72 6.14 0.06 0.36 2.63 0.09
50 s (368) 92.94 4.45 0.16 0.08 2.36 0.00
60 and over (272) 94.76 3.55 0.00 0.07 1.62 0.00
Level of Head
High School Graduation
or Less
(430) 89.37 5.61 0.09 0.21 4.63 0.09
College Dropout/
(897) 86.04 6.63 0.17 0.21 6.89 0.07
Graduate School or
(143) 93.71 4.06 0.00 0.14 2.10 0.00
Number of
One-Person Household (248) 81.03 7.00 0.16 0.32 11.29 0.20
Two-Person Household (323) 87.83 6.84 0.06 0.00 5.26 0.00
Three-Person Household (379) 89.87 5.25 0.11 0.11 4.56 0.11
Four-Person Household (402) 90.39 5.18 0.24 0.34 3.83 0.02
Five or More Person
(118) 85.93 7.80 0.00 0.34 5.93 0.00
Less than 2 million won (186) 82.82 8.09 0.16 0.05 8.87 0.00
2-3 million won (274) 82.14 6.44 0.07 0.26 10.91 0.18
3-4 million won (236) 89.47 6.84 0.21 0.25 3.09 0.13
4-5 million won (240) 88.27 7.23 0.10 0.52 3.88 0.00
5-6 million won (214) 88.31 5.94 0.23 0.05 5.42 0.05
Over 6 million won (320) 93.42 3.27 0.06 0.06 3.16 0.03

Acquisition methods of the kimchi purchased

In terms of acquisition methods, the majority of respondents obtained their kimchi from acquaintances or relatives (35.9%), followed by home production (34.0%), purchasing commercially available kimchi (21.5%), and purchasing from side dish shops (8.7%) (Table 5). Observing the change in kimchi purchase behavior across age groups, it was more common for younger individuals to receive kimchi from acquaintances or relatives, while older individuals were more likely to make their own. This aligns with the findings from Bezerra et al. (2012), suggesting that food acquisition methods may vary significantly based on demographic factors such as age.

Table 5.

Acquisition methods of the kimchi purchased

Category Number of
Purchase of
Purchase from
side dish shop
Total (2000) 35.9 34.0 21.5 8.7
Age 20 s (358) 41.6 27.4 18.2 12.8
30 s (373) 47.2 24.1 20.1 8.6
40 s (451) 43.5 25.7 23.7 7.1
50 s (465) 28.8 36.8 24.3 10.1
60 and over (353) 17.6 57.8 19.8 4.8
Highest Education
Level of Head of
High School Graduation or Less (588) 30.1 40.1 19.7 10.0
College Dropout/Graduation (1234) 37.8 31.8 22.1 8.3
Graduate School or Higher (178) 41.6 28.1 23.0 7.3
Number of
One-Person Household (397) 46.3 14.6 25.9 13.1
Two-Person Household (440) 34.3 35.9 22.5 7.3
Three-Person Household (481) 33.3 39.7 20.2 6.9
Four-Person Household (537) 33.3 39.5 19.6 7.6
Five or More Person Household (145) 29.7 41.4 17.9 11.0
Household Income
Less than 2 million won (291) 37.8 26.8 23.4 12.0
2-3 million won (389) 36.2 30.1 24.2 9.5
3-4 million won (319) 35.1 37.0 20.7 7.2
4-5 million won (321) 35.5 35.8 19.3 9.3
5-6 million won (268) 41.4 31.7 21.3 5.6
Over 6 million won (412) 31.3 40.3 20.1 8.3

Logit model analysis on kimchi consumption behavior

Firstly, the results from Table 6 presented the analysis of factors influencing whether kimchi is consumed with most meals in each household, using a logit model as per equation (6) and marginal effects. The marginal effect of age was significant at the 1% level, with a value of 0.34%, and the number of household members had a significant marginal effect of 4.68% at the same level. However, the effects of gender, education, and income were not statistically significant. This suggests that age and household size play a more important role in determining the frequency of kimchi consumption during meals (Jamal, 2003).

Table 6.

Logit model estimated coefficient on the frequency of kimchi consumption

Estimated coefficient Marginal effect (dy/dx)
Gender -0.1984*** (0.1333) -0.0229*** (0.0154)
Age 0.0291*** (0.0052) 0.0034*** (0.0006)
Education -0.1598*** (0.1172) -0.0184*** (0.0135)
Number of Household member 0.4044*** (0.0620) 0.0468*** (0.0071)
Income 0.0528*** (0.0450) 0.0061*** (0.0052)
Constant -0.1358*** (0.4312)
Number of observations 2,000
Log likelihood -766.52

Note : Single, double and triple asterisks (*) denote significance at 10%, 5% and 1% levels, respectively.

Table 7 displayed the results of another logit model analysis concerning whether various types of kimchi are purchased and consumed within each household. Here, the marginal effect of the number of household members was significant at the 1% level with a value of 3.71%, and income also displayed a significant marginal effect of 3.67% at the same level. The factors of gender, age, and education did not exhibit significant effects in this context. This implies that the size of the household and the income level tend to dictate the diversity of kimchi types being purchased and consumed (Hieke et al., 2015).

Table 7.

Logit model estimated coefficient on the consumption of various types of kimchi

Estimated coefficient Marginal effect (dy/dx)
Gender 0.1219*** (0.0927) 0.0290*** (0.0220)
Age 0.0007*** (0.0036) 0.0002*** (0.0009)
Education 0.0812*** (0.0786) 0.0193*** (0.0187)
Number of Household member 0.1560*** (0.0402) 0.0371*** (0.0094)
Income 0.1545*** (0.0307) 0.0367*** (0.0071)
Constant -1.1319*** (0.2997)
Number of observations 2,000
Log likelihood -1336.98

Note : Single, double and triple asterisks (*) denote significance at 10%, 5% and 1% levels, respectively.

Table 8 contained the findings from yet another logit model analysis, this time exploring whether each household had a preference for dishes containing kimchi such as kimchi burgers, kimchi pancakes, and kimchi stew. Gender exhibited a significant marginal effect of 4.19% at the 1% level, the number of household members had a significant marginal effect of 2.08% at the same level, and income had a significant marginal effect of 0.97% at the 5% level. However, the influences of age and education were not significant. This suggests that gender, household size, and income level are important determinants of preference for dishes containing kimchi.

Table 8.

Logit model estimated coefficient regarding the preference for food, including kimchi

Estimated coefficient Marginal effect (dy/dx)
Gender 0.3949*** (0.1411) 0.0419*** (0.0154)
Age 0.0034*** (0.0053) 0.0004*** (0.0006)
Education -0.1751*** (0.1184) -0.0186*** (0.0126)
Number of Household member 0.1962*** (0.0620) 0.0208*** (0.0066)
Income 0.0914*** (0.0467) 0.0097*** (0.0050)
Constant 1.2915*** (0.4407)
Number of observations 2,000
Log likelihood -727.95

Note : Single, double and triple asterisks (*) denote significance at 10%, 5% and 1% levels, respectively.

The findings from these logit models contribute to an understanding of kimchi consumption behaviors, highlighting how the variables of age, household size, gender, and income can have varying levels of influence depending on the specific aspect of kimchi consumption being considered. The results can be crucial for marketers and policymakers in formulating strategies aimed at promoting the consumption of kimchi.

Understanding the importance of these demographic factors can lead to more effective marketing and communication strategies. For example, the significant effect of age and household size on the frequency of kimchi consumption may imply a need for marketing campaigns that are tailored to different age groups and household types. The fact that income played a significant role in the diversity of kimchi consumption and the preference for dishes with kimchi suggests a potential correlation between income and the consumption of more diverse or premium types of kimchi, as well as kimchi-based dishes. This might lead to the opportunity for market segmentation or tiered product offerings based on consumer income levels. The results also suggest that gender influences the preference for dishes containing kimchi, indicating a potential gender difference in kimchi consumption habits. Recognizing such a difference may help in creating gender-targeted marketing strategies for kimchi and kimchi-based dishes.

Discussion and Conclusion

Firstly, the study found that a majority of respondents preferred domestically sourced kimchi, indicating a strong preference for local products. Also, age and household composition were found to influence the consideration of kimchi origin, with older generations showing greater knowledge and awareness compared to younger generations. These findings align with previous research on the determinants of food choice, emphasizing the importance of demographic factors in shaping dietary decisions.

Secondly, the analysis of kimchi consumption habits revealed that both age and household size significantly affect the likelihood of kimchi being consumed in most meals. This study found an increase in the consumption of traditional foods, including kimchi, with age. This could reflect the influence of traditional dietary patterns, more prevalent in older generations, which heavily feature fermented foods. The correlation with household size suggests that households with more members may have a higher demand for kimchi, possibly due to its versatility as a side dish and its long shelf-life.

Thirdly, the study found that the variety of kimchi consumed in a household was influenced significantly by household size and income. Larger and wealthier households may have greater access to and demand for a variety of kimchi types, reflecting previous findings in food choice research that income can impact dietary diversity (Drewnowski, 2009).

When it came to the preference for dishes incorporating kimchi, it was found that gender, household size, and income were significant factors. Particularly, women were more likely to prefer kimchi-inclusive dishes, reflecting a trend noted in previous literature (Park et al., 2013), where women tended to prefer vegetable-based dishes more than men. Larger and wealthier households also demonstrated a preference for such dishes, likely due to their ability to experiment with diverse food items and recipes.

However, it should be noted that while this study provides insightful correlations, it does not assert causation. The variables of age, household size, and income may be proxies for other unobserved variables that could also influence kimchi consumption behaviors. Further research could explore these dynamics in more detail, potentially considering regional differences, availability and accessibility of different types of kimchi, and changes in consumption habits over time.

In conclusion, this analysis contributes valuable insights into the factors influencing kimchi consumption behaviors, providing a platform for further research and possible considerations for the kimchi industry, policy-makers, and health professionals. Understanding these behaviors can support efforts to promote traditional dietary practices, improve food security, and ultimately enhance public health.


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