• Review Article

    Health-promoting Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi: A Review

    김치 유산균의 건강기능성에 대한 문헌 연구

    Jeong-Ah Yoon, Yu-Jeong Lee, Eun-Hee Park, Bong-Hwan Chung, Myoung-Dong Kim

    윤정아, 이유정, 박은희, 정봉환, 김명동

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food produced through the microbial fermentation of vegetables and various spices. To date, the physiologically active substances …

    김치는 한국인이 가장 사랑하는 발효식품으로 주재료인 채소와 다양한 부재료를 미생물을 통해 발효한 한국 전통 발효식품이다. 미생물에 의해 발효되면서 원재료가 가지고 있는 생리활성물질과 …

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    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food produced through the microbial fermentation of vegetables and various spices. To date, the physiologically active substances in the raw materials used and the health-promoting functions of the various microorganisms involved in their fermentation have been reported. The present review primarily summarizes the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi based on literature published after 2000. LAB isolated from kimchi exhibit excellent adhesion ability as well as acid and bile tolerance, which allow them to survive in the human body and form intestinal colonies. Furthermore, LAB exhibit antibacterial properties, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, and inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Taken together, these reports indicate that LAB isolated from kimchi may serve as potent probiotics.


    김치는 한국인이 가장 사랑하는 발효식품으로 주재료인 채소와 다양한 부재료를 미생물을 통해 발효한 한국 전통 발효식품이다. 미생물에 의해 발효되면서 원재료가 가지고 있는 생리활성물질과 발효 과정 중 성장하는 미생물에 의한 건강 기능성 등이 꾸준히 보고되고 있다. 본 문헌 연구에서는 주로 2000년 이후에 보고된 학술논문을 대상으로 김치에서 분리된 유산균의 프로바이오틱스 특성에 대하여 정리하였다. 김치 유산균은 내산성 및 내담즙성, 장부착능이 우수하여 체내에서 생존하고 장내 집락을 형성하여 기능성을 나타낼 수 있을 것으로 확인되었다. 또한, 유해균에 대한 항균활성과 DPPH radical 소거능을 나타냈으며, 지방 분화 억제능이 보고되었다. 김치 유산균의 항돌연변이, 항암, 면역증진에 대한 효과도 꾸준히 보고되고 있어 프로바이오틱스로서 활용이 더욱 증가될 것으로 기대된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Effect of Packaging Method on Quality and Storability of Head Lettuce

    포장방법이 결구 상추의 품질과 저장성에 미치는 영향

    Joo Hwan Lee, Dam Hee Choi, Yoo Han Roh, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang

    이주환, 최담희, 노유한, 최인이, 강호민

    In this study, corrugated box; perforated film; and 1300 cc, 40,000 cc, and 80,000 cc·m-2·day-1·atm-1 oxygen transmission …

    본 연구는 골판지 상자 및 유공필름을 대조군, 1,300 cc, 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc·m-2·day-1·atm-1 OTR(Oxygen transmission rate) 필름을 …

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    In this study, corrugated box; perforated film; and 1300 cc, 40,000 cc, and 80,000 cc·m-2·day-1·atm-1 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films were set up as experimental groups and stored at 2 °C (80% ± 5% RH) for 25 days; thereafter, the packaging method and OTRs of the films were compared. The fresh weight loss rate during storage was directly proportional to the OTR in the package. The lower the OTR, the more significantly the gas composition in the package increased or decreased, and the ethylene concentration increased until the 20th after storage, and decreased until the last day. Film packaging was better than corrugated box packaging, with 40,000 cc exhibiting the highest score. On the final date of storage, firmness was inconsistent with the OTR, and no color difference was observed between treatments. Off-odors decreased with higher OTRs and reached the lowest value with 40,000 cc among the modified atmosphere(MA) packaging treatments. Additionally, exterior browning exhibited the lowest increase with 40,000 cc up to 35%, with all treatments showing an increase in browning compared to the initial color. In contrast, browning of the interior exhibited highest rate of decline with 40,000 cc up to 30%. DPPH radical scavenging ability was lower than that observed initially for both exterior and interior browning. Among the MA packaging treatments, the reduction rate was low with 40,000 cc followed by 80,000 cc and 1300 cc. Vitamin C also saw all but the exterior of corrugated box, decreased compared to the initial levels, with 40,000 cc showing the lowest reduction. Therefore, 40,000 cc OTR films are considered suitable for packaging and extending the shelf life of head lettuce during storage.


    본 연구는 골판지 상자 및 유공필름을 대조군, 1,300 cc, 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc·m-2·day-1·atm-1 OTR(Oxygen transmission rate) 필름을 실험군으로 설정하고 2°C(80 ± 5%RH)에서 25일 동안 저장하여, 포장 방법 및 필름의 산소투과율에 따른 결구상추의 저장성 및 품질을 비교하기 위해 수행하였다. 저장 중 생체중 감소율은 포장의 산소투과율과 정비례했다. 포장 내 산소 및 이산화탄소 농도는 산소투과율이 낮을수록 대기의 기체조성 대비 증감의 변화가 컸으며, 에틸렌 농도는 저장 20일차까지 서서히 증가하다 최종일에 감소했다. 외관은 필름 포장한 것이 골판지 상자보다 좋았으며, 그 중 40,000 cc가 가장 높은 점수를 보였다. 저장 최종일 경도는 산소투과율에 따른 일정한 경향이 없었으며, 색도는 처리구간 차이가 없었다. 이취는 산소투과율이 높을수록 적어지는 경향을 보였으며 MA 포장 처리구 중에서는 40,000 cc에서 가장 적었다. 겉잎과 속잎으로 구분하여 조사한 항목 중 갈변도의 겉잎은 초기값 대비 모든 처리구가 증가했고, 속잎은 겉잎과는 반대의 경향을 보였지만, 겉잎과 속잎 모두 40,000 cc에서 가장 낮은 낮았다. DPPH 라디컬 소거능은 겉잎과 속잎 모두 초기값보다 감소하였으며, MA 포장 처리구 중에서는 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc 그리고 1,300 cc 순으로 감소율이 낮았다. 비타민 C 또한 골판지 상자 처리구의 겉잎을 제외하고는 모든 처리구가 초기값보다 감소했으며, 40,000 cc가 MA 포장 처리구 중에서 초기값 대비 가장 낮은 감소율을 나타냈다. 따라서 양상추 저장 중 유통기한을 연장함에 있어서 40,000 cc OTR 필름을 사용해 포장하는 적합한 것으로 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Market Integration and Price Transmission in the Common Beans Market of Mozambique
    Maússe Guilherme Zaqueu, Jung Hwan Kim, Ji Yong Lee
    As the staple food of Mozambique, common beans are one of the most produced, consumed, and commercialized agricultural commodities. Most of the … + READ MORE
    As the staple food of Mozambique, common beans are one of the most produced, consumed, and commercialized agricultural commodities. Most of the agricultural products suffer from price instability, especially in developing countries such as Mozambique, where the distance between farming areas and consumer centers is large and the transportation infrastructure is poor, affecting the food safety of the lower income households. It thus becomes important to assess the market integration and price transmission between the farm, wholesale, and retail markets to provide insights into government market interventions and policy directions. In our study, we investigated market integration and price transmission in the common beans market of Mozambique, using the autoregressive distributive lag model. The bounds co-integration results showed that the farm, wholesale, and retail prices co-integrate in the long run. The Granger causality test showed that there is a causal relationship between the price series, and the error correction model showed asymmetry in price transmission, suggesting the need for policy intervention to correct the market inefficiencies. Investing on the improvement of roads and exploiting the cheaper means of transportation, such as rail and sea transport, should be considered to enable cheaper movement of people and goods. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    RT-PCR Detection of Banana Mild Mosaic Virus for Quarantine Purposes in Korea

    국내 유입 우려 Banana Mild Mosaic Virus 신속진단을 위한 RT-PCR 검출법 개발

    Mi-Ah Bae, Mi-Ri Park

    배미아, 박미리

    Climate warming has enabled the cultivation of subtropical crops, including banana, passion fruit, dragon fruit, and mango, in the south of Korea. …

    지구온난화로 인한 우리나라의 기후가 온대 기후에서 점차 아열대 기후로 변화하고 있으며, 국내 아열대 작물의 재배지 및 수출입이 증가하고 있다. 그 결과, 해외 …

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    Climate warming has enabled the cultivation of subtropical crops, including banana, passion fruit, dragon fruit, and mango, in the south of Korea. There is now an increasing possibility of infection of subtropical crops by dangerous non-reportable viruses. Banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV) of the family Betaflexiviridae infects banana plants and occurs in most countries where bananas grow. BanMMV alone is asymptomatic in banana plants, whereas co-infection with Cucumber mosaic virus or Banana streak virus causes severe symptoms, including necrosis. However, there is no method for detecting BanMMV in Korea. In this study, we designed six BanMMV-specific primers for detecting BanMMV via Reverse Transcription- Polymer Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) using the coat protein region. From nine combinations of the primers, we obtained three BanMMV-specific primer sets that produced single bands (350, 445, and 583 bp, respectively). These three BanMMV-specific primer sets will be useful for the RT-PCR detection of BanMMV in banana plants in Korea.


    지구온난화로 인한 우리나라의 기후가 온대 기후에서 점차 아열대 기후로 변화하고 있으며, 국내 아열대 작물의 재배지 및 수출입이 증가하고 있다. 그 결과, 해외 바이러스의 국내 유입 가능성도 높아지고 있으나 현재 아열대 바이러스 검출법에 관한 연구가 충분히 이루어지지 않은 상태이다. 특히, 바나나에 감염하는 BanMMV는 Betaflexiviridae 과에 속하며, 바나나를 재배하는 대부분의 나라에 퍼져있다. BanMMV의 경우 단독감염 시에는 큰 병징이 없지만, CMV나 BSV와 복합감염 시 괴사 등의 병징을 일으켜 작물에 피해를 준다. 본 연구에서는 BanMMV 특이 프라이머 조합을 이용해 바이러스 PCR을 수행하였고, BanMMV 외피 단백질 영역에서 9개의 프라이머 조합 중 3종의 프라이머에서 각각 350 bp, 445 bp, 583 bp의 단일 밴드가 비특이적인 반응 없이 증폭되었다. 이 PCR 검출법은 소량의 바이러스로도 진단이 가능하며, 신속하고 정확한 진단을 통해 BanMMV의 국내 유입을 효과적으로 방지하는 데 유용하게 사용될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

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    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Impacts of Rural Migration on Social Net Benefit

    귀농귀촌의 사회적 편익 분석

    Young-Seok Yoon, Kyoung-Duk Kim, Byoung-Hoon Lee

    윤영석, 김경덕, 이병훈

    This study estimates the utility of ripple effect on the society of returning farmers and returning villagers from social and economic benefits. … + READ MORE
    This study estimates the utility of ripple effect on the society of returning farmers and returning villagers from social and economic benefits. Population segregation- and outflow-mediated ripple effect in urban and rural areas during returning to farming or village is estimated using the regional gross product increase/decrease model, which indicates direct economic effect and cost change in the environment (traffic confusion, sewage treatment, air pollution). Several social net benefits occur after moving to the rural area. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Antioxidant Components by NaCl Treatment of Korean Native Apocynum lancifolium Russanov

    NaCl처리에 따른 한국 자생 개정향풀의 유리아미노산 및 항산화 성분 분석

    Jo-Hoon Kim, Jae-Myun Lee, Ye-Gun Park, Mae-Hee Chiang, Jung-Ae Baik

    김조훈, 이재면, 박예근, 장매희, 백정애

    According to the free amino acid content including proline content after NaCl treatment, 21 free amino acids were analyzed. Glutamine content was …

    NaCl처리를 통한 개정향풀 전초에서 proline을 포함한 21개 유리아미노산의 성분이 분석되었으며 대조구와 0.25%, 2%농도의 NaCl처리 시 아미노산 성분 중 glutamine 성분이 21개 아미노산 …

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    According to the free amino acid content including proline content after NaCl treatment, 21 free amino acids were analyzed. Glutamine content was the highest after 0.25% and 2.0% NaCl treatment and in the control, while arginine content was the highest after 0.5% and 1.0% NaCl treatment. The total free amino acid in Apocynum lancifolium followed the order 2.0% NaCl treatment > 0.5% NaCl treatment > 0.25% NaCl treatment > 1.0% NaCl treatment > control; in particular, the total free amino acid content after 2.0% NaCl treatment (7428.94 mg/kg) was about 3.4 times higher than that in the control (2218.94 mg/kg). The proline content after 2.0% NaCl treatment was 47.49 mg/kg, while it was the lowest in the control. Antioxidant content, such as flavonoid CE (catechin equivalent) and total polyphenol GAE (gallic acid equivalent), and antioxidant activity AAE (ascorbic acid equivalent) were the highest after 0.25% NaCl treatment (29034.17 mg CE/kg, 24607.68 mg GAE/kg, and 39231.67 mg AAE/kg, respectively).


    NaCl처리를 통한 개정향풀 전초에서 proline을 포함한 21개 유리아미노산의 성분이 분석되었으며 대조구와 0.25%, 2%농도의 NaCl처리 시 아미노산 성분 중 glutamine 성분이 21개 아미노산 종류 중 가장 많은 양으로 나타났고 0.5%, 1.0% 농도의 NaCl처리 시 아미노산 성분 중 arginine 성분이 가장 많은 양으로 나타났으며 전체 유리아미노산의 총량의 경우는 2.0% > 0.5%> 0.25% > 1.0% > 대조구 순의 결과를 보였고 특히 2.0% NaCl처리의 7428.94 mg/kg 값은 대조구 2218.94 mg/kg의 약 3.4배 이상 높았으며 또한 proline 함량도 47.49 mg/kg으로 나타났고 대조구의 경우 가장 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 항산화 물질인 플라보노이드 CE(catechin equivalent), 총폴리페놀 GAE(gallic acid equivalent), 그리고 항산화활성 AAE(ascorbic acid equivalent)는 모두 0.25% NaCl농도에서 가장 높게 나타났으며 그 값은 각각 29034.17 mg CE/kg, 24607.68 mg GAE/kg, 그리고 39231.67 mg AAE/kg 함량으로 분석되었다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for 2-Furoic Acid in Benincasa hispida Extracts (HR1901-W)

    동과 추출물(HR1901-W)의 지표성분 2-Furoic acid 분석법 개발 및 검증

    Sun-Il Choi, Xionggao Han, Xiao Men, Se-Jeong Lee, Mi-Hye Park, Ok-Hwan Lee, Jung-Mo Yang, Ye-Eun Choi, Ju-Hyun Cho

    최선일, 한웅호, 문효, 이세정, 박미혜, 이옥환, 양정모, 최예은, 조주현

    As interest and demand for functional foods increase, standardization becomes important to manage the quality of raw materials and products. Analytical methods … + READ MORE
    As interest and demand for functional foods increase, standardization becomes important to manage the quality of raw materials and products. Analytical methods for the standardization of bioactive compounds must be created in tandem with the development of functional foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate an analytical method for the determination of 2-furoic acid in Benincasa hispida extract (HR1901-W). The 2-furoic acid analysis method was validated by evaluating the linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ), using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array spectrum. Our results showed that the correlation coefficients of the calibration curve for 2-furoic acid was 0.9999. Furthermore, the LOD and LOQ for 2-furoic acid were 0.10 µg/mL and 0.32 µg/mL, respectively. The range of inter-day and intra-day precision values (RSDs, relative standard deviation) for 2-furoic acid were 0.13%-0.56% and 0.27%-0.33, respectively, and the inter-day and intra-day accuracy values (recovery) were 98.47%-102.74% and 98.77%-102.72%, respectively. In addition, the content of 2-furoic acid in HR1901-W was found to be 412.39 ± 0.91 µg/dry weight in grams. These results indicate that the analytical method used in this study should be appropriate for the quantitative analysis of 2-furoic acid in HR1901-W and considered for use as basic data for the standardization of HR1901-W. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Influence of Crown Size of Day-neutral Strawberry on Its Growth, Flowering, and Yield
    YoungHun Lee, Young-Rog Yeoung
    The use of cold storage transplants is becoming popular in summer strawberry production, replacing freshly dug bare-root transplants, in which the crown … + READ MORE
    The use of cold storage transplants is becoming popular in summer strawberry production, replacing freshly dug bare-root transplants, in which the crown size indicates vigor. Three cultivars of day-neutral strawberry, Albion, Seascape, and San Andreas, were grown at the Daegwallyeong Research Center, Korea, inside a glasshouse during the summer growing season. Since the crown size of the strawberry transplant is associated with transplant vigor, this experiment was carried out to evaluate plant growth, development, and fruit yield of strawberry plants from cold storage bare-root transplants with different crown diameters. Three classes of crown diameters (small, medium, and large) were compared in a 3 × 3 factorial and completely randomized experimental design with four replications. Transplants were planted on April 17, 2013, and ripe fruits were harvested from June 11 to August 21, 2013. Fresh fruit yield was determined throughout the experiment, and plant growth and development were determined at the end of the experiment. The number of leaves, shoot dry weight, number of crowns, and fruit yield were significantly different among the three cultivars. Seascape showed the best vegetative and generative growth performance compared to the other cultivars. There was no correlation between the crown diameter, plant growth, or fruit yield of the cultivars; however, a larger crown diameter induced significantly earlier flower initiation. This result suggests that crown size is not an important indicator of the growth and yield of day-neutral strawberries from cold storage transplants. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    The Production and Characterization of Phytase by Germination in Barley

    보리의 발아를 통한 Phytase 생산과 특징

    Ha Guyn Sung

    성하균

    As a study for producing abundantly activated phytase in the germinated barleys, which are grain feed materials, we investigated the changes and …

    본 연구는 phytase가 풍부히 활성화한 곡물사료 원료로서 발아 보리를 생산하기 위한 연구로 보리의 발아하는 동안 phytase의 효소 역가 변화 및 발아 보리 …

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    As a study for producing abundantly activated phytase in the germinated barleys, which are grain feed materials, we investigated the changes and characteristics of phytase during germination in barley. When enzyme activity of phytase was measured after germination of corn, wheat, barley and rice under the same conditions as grains that can be used as feed materials, germinated barley showed the highest phytase activity of 2.91 ± 0.07 U/g compared to other grains (p < 0.05). The phytase activity of barley gradually increased with the times of germination, and decreased after peaking at 3.00 ± 0.32 U/g on the fourth day of germination. The temperature and pH of germinated barley phytase showed the highest peaks at 55°C and pH 5.0. Addition of 0.01% Tween 80 showed the best effects on the phytase activity of germinated barley. In all experiments, phytase activity had a tendency to decrease compared to the initial activity as the reaction time elapsed, but the treatment group of 0.01% Tween 80 maintained a similar level until 30 minutes after the reaction. Therefore, these results are considered to provide basic data for using germinated barley to improve the digestibility of feed-derived phytase and to prevent phosphate contamination of the environment through fecal excretion.


    본 연구는 phytase가 풍부히 활성화한 곡물사료 원료로서 발아 보리를 생산하기 위한 연구로 보리의 발아하는 동안 phytase의 효소 역가 변화 및 발아 보리 phytase의 효소 활성 특성에 대하여 연구하였다. 사료용 원료로 사용 가능한 곡류로서 옥수수, 밀, 보리 및 벼를 동일한 조건에서 발아 후 phytase의 효소 역가를 측정하였을 때 발아 보리의 phytase 역가가 2.91 ± 0.07 U/g으로 다른 곡류에 비하여 가장 높았다(p < 0.05). 발아 기간 동안 보리의 phytase 역가는 발아 시간이 경과함에 따라 점진적으로 증가하였고, 발아 4일차에 3.00 ± 0.32 U/g으로 최고 정점을 형성한 후에 감소하였다. 발아보리 phytase의 활성을 위한 온도 및 pH는 55°C 및 pH 5.0에서 최고 정점을 나타내었다. Tween 80이 발아보리의 phytase 활성에 미치는 영향은 0.01% 첨가하였을 때 가장 좋은 효과를 주었다. 그리고 모든 실험에서 반응시간이 경과함에 따라 초기 효소 역가에 비하여 낮아지는 경향을 보였으나, Tween 80을 0.01% 첨가한 처리구는 반응 후 30분까지 유사한 수준을 유지하였다. 따라서 이상과 같은 연구 결과는 사료 유래 phytate의 소화기 내 이용을 향상시키고 배설로 환경의 인산염 오염을 예방함에 있어 발아 보리의 동물 사료에 활용을 위한 기초 자료를 제공 할 것으로 사료된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Genotoxicity Evaluation of Extracts from the Husks and Cobs of Purple Corn using an In vitro Chromosome Aberration Test in Chinese Hamster Lung Cells

    자색옥수수 포엽 및 속대추출물의 Chinese Hamster Lung 세포를 이용한 염색체 이상시험

    Hee Yeon Kim, Ki Yeon Lee, Tae Hee Kim, Eun Jae Kim, Jong Yeol Park

    김희연, 이기연, 김태희, 김재은, 박종열

    This study evaluated the toxicity of extracts from the husks and cobs of purple corn (HCPC) using an in vitro chromosomal aberration …

    자색 옥수수 포엽과 속대 추출물에 대한 염색체이상 유발여부를 평가하기 위하여 Chinese hamster 유래의 lung cell을 이용하여 직접법 (S9‑)과 대사활성법 (S9+)에서의 염색체이상시험을 실시하였다. …

    + READ MORE
    This study evaluated the toxicity of extracts from the husks and cobs of purple corn (HCPC) using an in vitro chromosomal aberration test in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Experimental groups were treated with –S9 mix (6 h), +S9 mix (6h), or –S9 mix (24 h). A dose range finding study was conducted by setting the concentrations of HCPC extracts to 156, 313, 625, 1,250, 2,500 and 5,000 µg/mL. Consequently, the –S9 mix (6h) RICC55 value was 1677.76 µg/mL, no cytotoxicity was determined at +S9 mix (6h), and –S9 mix (24h) RICC55 value was 582.91 µg/mL. Based on the results, concentration of experimental groups was determined by setting 1,000, 1,250, 1,500, and 1,750 µg/mL in –S9 mix (6 h); 1,250, 2,500, and 5,000 µg/mL in +S9 mix; and 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 µg/mL in –S9 mix (24 h). The frequency of appearance of chromosomal dysplasia cells and numerical dysplasia cells was less than 5% each. In the positive controls, the frequency of appearance of structural dysplasia cells was more than 10%. Under the conditions of this study, extracts from the husks and cobs did not cause chromosome abnormalities in CHL cells.


    자색 옥수수 포엽과 속대 추출물에 대한 염색체이상 유발여부를 평가하기 위하여 Chinese hamster 유래의 lung cell을 이용하여 직접법 (S9‑)과 대사활성법 (S9+)에서의 염색체이상시험을 실시하였다. 농도결정시험은 자색옥수수 포엽 및 속대 추출물의 농도를 156, 313, 625, 1,250, 2,500 및 5,000 µg/mL로 설정하며 실시하였다. 그 결과, ‑S9 mix RICC55 값은 1677.76 µg/mL, +S9 mix에서는 세포독성이 확인되지 않았으며 24 시간 처리에서 RICC55 값은 582.91 µg/mL이었다. 농도결정시험의 결과를 기초로 하여, ‑S9 mix에서는 1,000, 1,250, 1,500, 1,750, 2,000, 2,250 및 2,500 µg/mL, +S9 mix에서는 1,250, 2,500 및 5,000 µg/mL를 각각 설정하여 염색체이상시험(단시간처리법)을 실시하였고, 24 시간처리(연속처리법)에 대해서는 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 µg/mL 실시하였다. 표본관찰의 결과 ‑S9 mix와 +S9 mix, 연속처리법에서의 염색체구조이상세포 및 수적이상세포의 출현빈도는 각각 5% 미만이었고, 양성대조군의 경우 구조이상 세포의 출현빈도는 10% 이상이었다. 따라서 시험물질 시험물질은 본 시험조건 하에서 CHL 세포에 대한 염색체이상을 유발하지 않는 것(음성)으로 판단된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Fatigue Life Analysis for Agricultural By-product Collector

    농업부산물 수집기의 피로수명 해석

    Jeonghun Kim, Moonkyeong Jang, Juseok Nam

    김정훈, 장문경, 남주석

    In this study, the fatigue life of an agricultural by-product collector was analyzed using dynamic simulation analysis. Considering its structure, the fastening … + READ MORE
    In this study, the fatigue life of an agricultural by-product collector was analyzed using dynamic simulation analysis. Considering its structure, the fastening device is the most vulnerable part of the agricultural by-product collector. Therefore, the fatigue life of the fastening device was analyzed when the agricultural by-product collector moved forward in three different ground conditions (flat, sinusoidal, and with right-triangular shaped obstacles). The agricultural by-product collector was modeled in actual 3-dimensional shape, and the physical properties were input for simulation analysis. The forward speed of the agricultural by-product collector and the height of the obstacles were set to 1.0 m/s and 20 cm, respectively. As a result of simulation, the fatigue life of the fastening device in flat ground, sinusoidal, and with right triangular shape obstacle conditions were 27,107, 539, and 628 h, respectively. It can be concluded that the agricultural by-product collector is designed safely, considering the annual operating time and service life of the agricultural machinery. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Evaluation of the antifungal activity of Trichoderma virens T101b isolated from soil against two plant pathogens

    토양으로부터 분리된 Trichoderma virens T101b의 식물병원균 2종에 대한 항진균 활성

    Young Don Lee, In Ahn, Khalid Abdallah Hussein, Jin Ho Joo

    이영돈, 안인, 칼리드후세인, 주진호

    Recently, the incidence of pathogens has increased due to climate change, which is posing several challenges to various crops. Botrytis cinerea and … + READ MORE
    Recently, the incidence of pathogens has increased due to climate change, which is posing several challenges to various crops. Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infect several crops and cause severe economic loss to farmers. This study aims to isolate and identify Trichoderma sp. exhibiting antifungal activity against these plant pathogens and also evaluate the antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Trichoderma sp. The strain Trichoderma virens KNU1 showed high antifungal activity against the two plant pathogens mentioned above (determined seven days after replacement culture; S. sclerotiorum, 87.88% > B. cinerea, 86.67%). Similarly, VOCs showed a high antifungal activity of 82.67% determined after seven days of incubation against B. cinerea. In this study, T. virens T101b showed relatively high antifungal activity against the two plant pathogens, which implies its potential as a biological pesticide. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Survey of Insect Pests and Residual Pesticides of Kimchi Cabbage and Cabbage for Export to Taiwan

    대만 수출용 배추 및 양배추에서 해충 및 잔류농약 실태조사

    Woong Ki, Ki-Jeong Hong

    기웅, 홍기정

    According to Korea’s fresh leafy vegetable export data for the 2015–2019 period, the export turnover for Kimchi cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. …

    2015년부터 2019년까지 한국산 엽채류 수출에서 배추(B. rapa subsp. pekinensis)는 7개국으로 대만에 88-97%를, 양배추(B. oleracea var. capitata)는 9개국으로 대만에 …

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    According to Korea’s fresh leafy vegetable export data for the 2015–2019 period, the export turnover for Kimchi cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) to the Taiwanese market accounted for 79.5–97.2 % (out of seven countries) and 36.0–96.2 % (out of nine countries), respectively. To export Korean leafy vegetable products to Taiwan, the Taiwanese Plant Protection Organization requires proof that the products are free from Frankliniella occidentalis and Ditylenchus dipsaci infection as an annex to the Phytosanitary Certification before clearance. In addition, data acquired from the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Rural Development Administration revealed that the misapplication of flonicamid, etofenprox, tebufenozide, flufenoxuron, pymetrozine, methoxyfenozide, and flupyradifurone (as insecticides); diniconazole, metconazole, tebuconazole, and famoxadone (as fungicides); fosthiazate (as a nematicide); and dimethoate (as an acaricide) pose challenges. The application rates of such pesticides exceeded the maximum residue limits based on the quarantine requirements for exporting Kimchi cabbage and cabbage to Taiwan. Residual analysis results revealed that procymidone, a fungicide that is not registered for application on Kimchi cabbage, is still being used by farmers and its detection level surpassed the domestic limit of quantitation. Therefore, farmers who intend to export fresh leafy vegetables should monitor pests to facilitate early detection and use registered pesticides while adhering to safe use practices.


    2015년부터 2019년까지 한국산 엽채류 수출에서 배추(B. rapa subsp. pekinensis)는 7개국으로 대만에 88-97%를, 양배추(B. oleracea var. capitata)는 9개국으로 대만에 83-99%를 수출하고 있어 2018년을 제외하고는 대만으로의 수출 비중이 매우 높게 나타나고 있으며, 대만 측에서는 식물검역증명서(PC) 상의 부기사항으로 배추와 양배추의 경우 꽃노랑총채벌레(F. occidentalis)와 마늘줄기선충(D. dipsaci)에 대하여 무감염 증명을 요구하고 있다. 또한 농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원에 따르면, 배추와 양배추의 대만 수출과정에서 잔류농약허용기준 초과로 살균제는 diniconazole, metconazole, tebuconazole, famoxadone, 살충제는 flonicamid, etofenprox, tebufenozide, flufenoxuron, pymetrozine, methoxyfenozide, flupyradifurone, 살선충제는 fosthiazate, 살응애제는 dimethoate가 문제가 되었으며, 국내 재래시장 및 대형마트에서 판매되고 있는 시료들을 2020년 10월에 수집하여 잔류농약 성분을 분석한 결과에서도 일부 재배농가는 배추에 등록되지 않은 농약인 procymidone을 사용하여 국내잔류허용치를 초과하는 수준이 검출되었다. 따라서 엽채류를 수출하고자 하는 농가에서는 재배 초기부터 문제가 될 수 있는 병해충이 발생하지 않도록 철저한 관리와 함께 반드시 등록된 농약을 농약안전사용 기준에 따라 살포하도록 지도하여야 할 필요가 있다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Analysis of the Physiological Properties and Enzyme Productivity of Halophilic Thermophiles from the Soil around Charcoal Kilns

    숯가마 주변 토양에서 분리한 호염성을 가지는 고온균의 생리학적 특성과 효소 생산능 분석

    Yong-Jik Lee

    이용직

    Soil samples around charcoal kilns were analyzed in this study to confirm the possibility of isolating halophilic thermophiles from them. A marine …

    본 연구는 호염성 고온균의 분리 가능성을 확인하기 위해 숯가마 주변의 토양을 사용하였다. 호염성 세균의 순수 분리를 위하여 marine agar 배지를 사용하였으며 37°C에서 …

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    Soil samples around charcoal kilns were analyzed in this study to confirm the possibility of isolating halophilic thermophiles from them. A marine agar medium was used for the isolation of halobacteria with cultivation at 37°C for several days. Five pure colonies were isolated using single colony isolation techniques. A 16S-based ID service was then performed to confirm the species of each strain identified. Results indicated that all the strains isolated were Bacillus species. Further study of these isolated strains was then undertaken to confirm whether they can be used industrially in the food, cosmetics, and other industries. This included examining whether these strains could be grown at high temperatures, as well as testing for enzyme productivity including amylase, lipase, and protease. Results demonstrated that five of these strains could grow at 55°C and possessed at least one enzyme activity. Findings also indicated that the isolated strains were halophilic thermophiles. These results have shown the possibility of the use of these strains in biological processes at high temperatures in the food and cosmetics industries. This study also contributes to securing domestic biological resources and the improvement of hydrolytic enzyme activity by using isolated strains of halophilic thermophiles.


    본 연구는 호염성 고온균의 분리 가능성을 확인하기 위해 숯가마 주변의 토양을 사용하였다. 호염성 세균의 순수 분리를 위하여 marine agar 배지를 사용하였으며 37°C에서 호기적으로 배양하였다. 순수분리를 통하여 5균주를 분리하였으며 16S-based ID 분석 프로그램으로 동정을 시행한 결과, 모든 분리 균주는 Bacillus 속으로 확인되었다. 그리고 분리한 균주들이 식품, 화장품과 기타 산업에 활용이 가능한지를 확인하기 위해 고온에서의 생육 가능성과 amylase, lipase, protease 같은 효소 생산능을 확인한 결과, 5균주 모두 55도에서 생육이 가능하였으며 최소 1종류 이상의 효소 활성을 타내는 것을 확인하였다. 이 결과는 분리한 균주들이 호염성 고온균임을 나타냄과 함께 식품 및 화장품 산업에서의 고온 생물 공정에서의 활용 가능성을 나타내었다. 또한 이번 연구는 국내 유전자원 확보 및 가수분해 효소 생산능 개선을 위한 균주 개량에 본 연구를 통하여 순수분리된 균주의 활용이 도움이 될 것으로 생각된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Anti-obesity Effects of Treatment with Air-classified Brassica juncea L. Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice

    고지방식이로 유도된 C57BL/6J 마우스에서 공기분급 갓분말 추출물의 항비만 효과

    Sung-Jin Park, Hyun-Duk Kim, Yoon-Hwan Lee

    박성진, 김현덕, 이윤환

    Air-classified Brassica juncea L. extract (BJ) was investigated for its anti-obesity effects in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were …

    본 연구에서는 공기분급 갓분말 추출물이 고지방식이 섭취 비만 마우스의 비만 및 지질대사 개선에 미치는 영향을 검토하였다. C57BL/6 마우스의 체중은 100 mg/kg/day부터 유의적인 …

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    Air-classified Brassica juncea L. extract (BJ) was investigated for its anti-obesity effects in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were divided into two groups: one fed a normal diet (NFD), and the other, an HFD. Mice in the HFD-fed group were subsequently treated with BJ (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Inhibition of HFD-induced obesity by BJ treatment was evaluated by analyzing biochemical parameters and using real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. BJ supplementation significantly decreased the final body weight, adipose tissue size, and epididymal adipose tissue volume in comparison with those in the HFD-induced obese mice (p < 0.05). BJ treatment also decreased serum triglyceride, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in obese mice. Furthermore, it attenuated HFD- induced obesity by downregulating C/EBPα, PPARγ, and SREBP-1c to suppress adipogenesis. Moreover, BJ treatment activated the AMPK pathway, increased ACC phosphorylation, and downstream CPT1 expression in HFD-induced obese mice. These results demonstrate that BJ has anti-obesity effects in vivo, indicating that it is an excellent candidate for developing anti-obesity functional foods.


    본 연구에서는 공기분급 갓분말 추출물이 고지방식이 섭취 비만 마우스의 비만 및 지질대사 개선에 미치는 영향을 검토하였다. C57BL/6 마우스의 체중은 100 mg/kg/day부터 유의적인 체중 감소를 보였으며, 100와 200 mg/kg/day 투여에 의한 농도 의존적인 유의적 차이는 나타나지 않았다. 갓분말 추출물 100과 200 mg/kg/day 농도에서 간과 내장지방 무게, 혈중 중성지방 함량, 총콜레스테롤함량, LDL-콜레스테롤함량, 지방세포 크기가 효과적으로 감소되었으며, 특히, 갓분말 추출물 200 mg/kg/day 농도에서 HFD군과 비교했을 때 부고환지방무게가 현저히 감소함을 나타내었다. 이와 같은 결과는 공기분급 갓분말 추출물이 transcription factor인 PPARγ, C/EBPα와 SREBP-1c의 발현을 유의적으로 감소하는 것에 기인하는 것으로 판단되며, 또한 지방조직에서 adiponectin을 증가시켜 AMPK pathway를 활성화하여 지방조직의 에너지 대사 장애를 개선하는 것으로 사료된다. 한편, 본 소재와 관련된 기능성분 및 작용기작에 대하여 추후 보다 구체적인 연구가 요구되며 이를 통해 기능성과 경쟁력을 갖춘 간편식, 영양 균형식으로의 개발이 기대된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Use of a Korean Wheat Variety to Prevent Myocardial Infarction and Alzheimer’s Disease
    Jihye Lee, Sun-Ha Lim, Kyeong-Hoon Kim, Chon-Sik Kang, Ji Wook Jung, Jongwon Lee
    In our previous studies, wheat-extract powder and/or wheat-bran extract powder, processed through centrifugation, showed efficacy in rodent models for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) … + READ MORE
    In our previous studies, wheat-extract powder and/or wheat-bran extract powder, processed through centrifugation, showed efficacy in rodent models for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and improved memory in elderly who complained of memory impairment. However, the development of a new processing method that does not require a centrifugation step is necessary for the efficient and inexpensive processing of functional foods. In this study, we prepared whole-wheat extract powder (WWE) from three Korean wheat varieties: Anbaek, Anzunbaengi, and Goso, by grinding, extraction, and drying. Initially, all three WWEs were tested in a rat MI model and Anbaek WWE was chosen as the final candidate as it significantly reduced myocardial injury even at the lowest dose of 31 mg/kg per day. Additionally, Anbaek wheat flour contained the highest quantity of water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX), an active ingredient, compared to the other varieties tested. Anbaek WWE was then tested in a mouse AD model wherein WWE administration showed maximum memory improvement at a dosage of 125 mg/kg. One underlying mechanism by which Anbaek WWE improved memory was by enhancing neurotransmission at glutamatergic synapses. Based on these results, we recommend Anbaek WWE as a potential candidate to be developed as a functional food to prevent AD and MI at a dosage of 1 g/day per person, which was calculated using a standard conversion factor. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Effects of Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense on the LPS-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    토끼풀과 붉은토끼풀 추출물의 항염증 효과에 대한 비교연구

    Jae Yoon Kim, So-Yeon Kim, Se Jin Park

    김재윤, 김소연, 박세진

    Inflammation is a defensive response to external stimuli such as wounds and infections. However, excessive inflammation causes chronic inflammatory disease through the … + READ MORE
    Inflammation is a defensive response to external stimuli such as wounds and infections. However, excessive inflammation causes chronic inflammatory disease through the overexpression of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins (ILs). This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of clover (MEC) and red clover (MERC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses in RAW 264.7 cells. MEC and MERC (0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 µg/mL) were pretreated for an hour before stimulation with LPS (1 µg/mL). MEC and MERC did not exhibit cytotoxicity under 500 µg/mL and inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2. In addition, MEC and MERC suppressed the LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-1β at the mRNA and protein levels in RAW 264.7. The overall findings of this study suggest that MEC and MERC can be used as treatments for various inflammatory diseases. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Changes in Volatile Compounds in Korean Red Pepper by six Cooking Methods

    조리방법에 따른 고추의 향기성분 변화

    Se-Young Kwun, Ga-Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Ju Lee, Chung-Woo Park, Yong-Su Ji, Eun-Hee Park

    권세영, 김가연, 이현주, 박청우, 지용수, 박은희

    This study analysis the volatile compounds of Korean red pepper by six cooking methods, such as drying, frying, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, and …

    본 연구는 건조, 튀김, 굽기, 볶기, 찌기와 같은 조리방법으로 한국 고추의 휘발성 화합물을 GC-TOF/MS로 분석하였다. 휘발성 화합물의 프로파일은 주성분 다변량 분석(PCA)을 통해 …

    + READ MORE
    This study analysis the volatile compounds of Korean red pepper by six cooking methods, such as drying, frying, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, and baking. Volatile compounds were detected by GC-TOF/MS, and their profiles were compared using multivariate Analysis of Principal Components (PCA). The volatile compounds of control and baking pepper showed a different component distribution than boiling, drying, roasting, and steaming pepper, which showed similar component distribution. Among these, 19 major compounds such as 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-furanmethanol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and benzeneethanol, showed various results depending on the cooking method. This study is expected to improve the utilization of Korean red pepper by considering the characteristics of the processing method during product development.


    본 연구는 건조, 튀김, 굽기, 볶기, 찌기와 같은 조리방법으로 한국 고추의 휘발성 화합물을 GC-TOF/MS로 분석하였다. 휘발성 화합물의 프로파일은 주성분 다변량 분석(PCA)을 통해 비교하였을 때, 대조구(control)와 비교하여 조리한 고추에서 향기성분들이 증가하는 것으로 나타났으며, 그 중에서도 구운 고추(baking)가 대조구와 가장 상이한 휘발성 성분 분포를 나타냈다. 이 중, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-furanmethanol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, benzeneethanol 등 19가지의 주요 화합물은 조리방법에 따라 다양한 결과를 나타냈다. 본 연구는 가공 방법의 특성을 고려한 제품개발에 한국 고추를 활용하여 활용도를 높일 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

    - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Research Article

    Breeding of a New Golden Mini Sweet Pumpkin Cultivar (Hybrid) ‘K1’

    황금색 미니단호박 ‘K1’ 품종 육성

    Sung Min Park

    박성민

    ‘K1’ is a golden sweet pumpkin variety bred in 2021 by Kangwon National University. Five pure lines were bred through self-fertilization of … + READ MORE
    ‘K1’ is a golden sweet pumpkin variety bred in 2021 by Kangwon National University. Five pure lines were bred through self-fertilization of Mini Gold F1 hybrid for 8 generations using the phylogenetic breeding method. Two parents were selected by examining the characteristics of the five lines. F1 was bred by crossing 1-1-1, as a maternal line, with 1-4-1, as a paternal line. Qualitative and quantitative traits of 10 specimens each were examined for 2 years in 3 repetitions. The specimens showed excellent characteristics and were named K1. The female flower was epiphytic on every 2 nodes; therefore, the fruiting performance was very good. The fruit was about 350 g, with yellow color skin and dark orange line clearly formed on the yellow background. The flesh was wider than that of the control, and there were many edible parts. The sugar content was high with12 Brix. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
  • Notice

    Erratum to: Analysis of the Factors Influencing Consumers’ Preferences for Rice: Locally Produced Versus the Imported in the Ga East Municipality of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana
    Piao, S. Y., Z. R. Li, Y. C. Sun, J. I. Lee, E. A. Yirenkyi
    This erratum is being published to correct the printing error on pages 177 of the article [Vol. 32, Special Issue] entitled “Analysis … + READ MORE
    This erratum is being published to correct the printing error on pages 177 of the article [Vol. 32, Special Issue] entitled “Analysis of the Factors Influencing Consumers’ Preferences for Rice: Locally Produced Versus the Imported in the Ga East Municipality of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana”. There was an error in the name of the author who participated in the study in the paper, and it was changed from Y. E. Amanor to E. A. Yirenkyi. - COLLAPSE
    31 December 2021
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