• Research Article

    Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Hazelnuts from Various Korean Provinces

    원산지별 헤이즐넛의 지방산 분석

    Hwa-Young Song, Min-Hee Kwon, Sang-Mi Jung, Bong-Hwan Chung, Chan-Woo Park, Moon-jin Ra

    송화영, 권민희, 정상미, 정봉환, 박찬우, 라문진

    Hazelnut plays a pivotal role in human nutrition and health due to its essential unsaturated fatty acids (FA). The composition of hazelnuts ... + READ MORE
    Hazelnut plays a pivotal role in human nutrition and health due to its essential unsaturated fatty acids (FA). The composition of hazelnuts needs to be standardized in different regions for their mass production. In the present study, we compared the compositions of FA that are used as the index components in hazelnuts harvested from various provinces of Korea such as Gochang, Bonghwa, Hongcheon, and Cheorwon. This was also compared for each manufacturing process including raw material, degreasing, roasting, oil refining, and oil foil. The FA was extracted from the hazelnuts using Bligh-Dyer method, and was analyzed via gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results revealed that the hazelnuts in all regions comprised various types of unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), eicosenic acid (C20:1), and linolenic acid (C18:3). Among these, the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and remaining FA was 76.8%–80.8%, 8.6%–11.5%, and 16%–18%, respectively. Thus, no differences were observed in the compositions of hazelnuts obtained from various regions. In conclusion, the unsaturated FA are an active ingredient in hazelnut that act as the major index component for developing functional healthy food. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Enhancement of Immune Activation using an Herbal Preparation (Product name: Cheongmokpye)

    청목폐(제품명)의 면역 증진 효과

    Hee-Jun Kim, Bohye Kim, Mi-Ra Lee, Byung-Kook Sun, Wang-Kwon Kim, Bong-Hwan Chung, Moonjin Ra, Yongjun Lee

    김희준, 김보혜, 이미라, 선병국, 김왕권, 정봉환, 라문진, 이용준

    An herbal mixture (product name: Cheongmokpye) comprising 20 edible medicinal herbs (including Platycodon grandiflorum, Codonopsis lanceolata, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Morus ... + READ MORE
    An herbal mixture (product name: Cheongmokpye) comprising 20 edible medicinal herbs (including Platycodon grandiflorum, Codonopsis lanceolata, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Morus alba L., Perilla frutescens var. acuta, and Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) was designed to enhance immune responses and protect against respiratory diseases caused by fine dust and air pollution. We aimed to investigate whether Cheongmokpye extract (TC1) and powder (TC2) treatments enhanced immune activity in RAW 264.7, a murine macrophage-derived cell line. To avoid cytotoxicity arising from TC1 and TC2 treatments, we determined their appropriate dose and found that TC1 and TC2 exhibited no cytotoxicity at doses below 400 µg/ml. Moreover, TC1 and TC2 treatments affected nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6) levels. Moreover, we found that both TC1 and TC2 treatments enhanced the phagocytosis of prelabeled zymosan particles. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cheongmokpye is a beneficial functional food that enhances immune activation and exerts immunostimulatory effects on macrophages. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Ameliorative Effects of Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f) Nakai Fruit Extract on DSS-Induced Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    DSS로 유도한 마우스의 대장염에 대한 돌배 추출물의 개선효과

    Mi-Ra Lee, Bohye Kim, Nam-Gook Kim, Hee-Joung Kim, Moonjin Ra, Bong-Hwan Chung, Yongjun Lee

    이미라, 김보혜, 김남국, 김희정, 라문진, 정봉환, 이용준

    Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f) Nakai fruit has been used as a traditional medicine for fever, cough, asthma, and rheumatic arthritis. This study ... + READ MORE
    Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f) Nakai fruit has been used as a traditional medicine for fever, cough, asthma, and rheumatic arthritis. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of P. pyrifolia Nakai fruit extract (PPE) against DSS-induced colitis in mice. PPE—water extract (PWE), ethanol extract (PEE), or fermented extract (PFE)—was administered for 30 days. After 21 days of PPE treatment, ulcerative colitis was induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS for 5 days. The mice were divided into seven groups: one normal control (NC) group and six groups with different treatments—DSS, DSS + 100 mg/kg PWE (PWL), DSS + 400 mg/kg PWE (PWH), DSS + 100 mg/kg PEE (PEL), DSS + 400 mg/kg PEE (PEH), DSS+ PFE (1:4 dilution, PFE), respectively. Mice treated with DSS showed severe bloody stools, diarrhea, and weight loss. Colon tissue in DSS group exhibited a marked decrease in its length. However, PPE treatment improved the disease activity index score and colon length. PPE alleviated DSS-induced inflammatory colon lesions. The level of IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, was significantly decreased in PFE group. Moreover, colonic myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced in all PPE-treated groups, except in PWL group. These results show that PPE can be used for developing effective and safe functional health products for inflammatory bowel disease. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition in Oil Blends using Pine Nut Oil

    잣기름을 활용한 혼합유의 지방산 분석

    Min-Hee Kwon, Sang-Mi Jung, Bong-Hwan Chung, Song-Geun Kim, Sang-Jik Byun, Moon-Jin Ra

    권민희, 정상미, 정봉환, 김송근, 변상직, 라문진

    Among fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are called polyunsaturated fats because they have several double bonds. Both are biologically active ... + READ MORE
    Among fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are called polyunsaturated fats because they have several double bonds. Both are biologically active and play an important role in immune system and metabolism processes in the body. The intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in a ratio of 1:4–5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization for a balanced nutrition, can help prevent the onset of insulin resistance, depression, high blood pressure, stroke, and obesity. However, in modern diets, people consume too much omega-6 fatty acids. One reason is the consumption of mostly vegetable oils, which contain a high amount of omega-6 fatty acids. We hypothesized that a proper mix of oil extracted from pine nuts and general oils could provide the desirable functional benefits through ensuring a 1:4–5 ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids. Therefore, this study investigated whether mixing pine nut oil with general oils could provide the ideal composition ratio of 1:4–5 of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids. Perilla, hazelnut, olive, avocado, and hemp seed oils were selected as the candidates for mixing with pine nut oil. The individual profiles of fatty acids and the omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids ratio in the mixtures were analyzed using a GC-FID system. Our results showed that the mixture of 85% pine nut oil and 15% perilla oil had an optimal omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids ratio of 1:4–5. These findings suggest that the proportioned mixture of pine nut oil and perilla oil has the potential to develop oil blends with improved functionality. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Changes in Organic Acids and Volatile Basic Nitrogen in Vegan Kimchi Based on Storage Condition

    비건김치의 저장조건에 따른 유기산 및 휘발성염기질소의 변화

    Sang-Mi Jung, Hee-Jeong Eom, Yun-Jung Jang, Ju-Yeon Lee, Bong-Hwan Chung, Moon-Jin Ra

    정상미, 엄희정, 장윤정, 이주연, 정봉환, 라문진

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean probiotic food prepared through fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With an increase in the consumer ... + READ MORE
    Kimchi is a traditional Korean probiotic food prepared through fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With an increase in the consumer needs for the vegan products, the field of Kimchi industry has been attempting to develop vegan Kimchi products. However, differences between vegan and non-vegan Kimchi in terms of manufacturing production and processes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the components of organic acids and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) during (non)-vegan kimchi production depending on the fermentation period and temperature condition. At first, the profiling of organic acids was quantified during fermentation at low (4℃) and room (25℃) temperatures, respectively, using HPLC-UV. The contents of organic acids in both types of Kimchi contained latic, acetic, citric, succinic, malic, oxalic, and fumaric acids at the first day of fermentation. At twenty days of fermentation, all contents of organic acids in vegan Kimchi had higher level than those in non-vegan Kimchi. In the next study, we investigated the content of VBN of vegan Kimchi compared with that of non-vegan Kimchi. The level of VBN in both increased depending on the fermentation period. Interestingly, the level of VBN in vegan Kimchi was lower than that of non-vegan Kimchi during fermentation. Conclusively, these results indicate increased contents of organic acids and decreased level of VBN in vegan Kimchi compared with non-vegan Kimchi, and thus, vegan Kimchi products could be competitive enough compared to the non-vegan Kimchi products. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Anti-Obesity Effect of Mixed Probiotics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis CP-9 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus bv-77 in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    고지방식이로 유도한 비만 마우스에서 Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9와 Lactobacillus rhamnosus bv-77 유산균 혼합제제의 항비만 효과

    Mi-Ra Lee, Bohye Kim, Hee-Jun Kim, Eun-Joo Kum, Yeong-A Jung, Moonjin Ra, Bong-Hwan Chung, Yongjun Lee

    이미라, 김보혜, 김희준, 금은주, 정영아, 라문진, 정봉환, 이용준

    The anti-obesity effect of a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus bv-77 in an obese mouse model was ... + READ MORE
    The anti-obesity effect of a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus bv-77 in an obese mouse model was studied. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice by providing a 60 kcal% high fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The mice were then administered probiotics for 5 weeks and divided into five groups as follows: (1) normal control group (10 kcal% fat diet), (2) HFD group (60 kcal% fat diet), (3) low dose-treated group (HFD + 5×108 colony forming units (cfu)/mouse), (4) middle dose-treated group (HFD + 2.5×109 cfu/mouse), and (5) high dose-treated group (HFD + 5×109 cfu/mouse). Supplementation with the probiotic mixture did not affect plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Probiotic supplementation was decreased body weight gain, plasma lipid levels, and adipose tissue. In addition, mixed probiotics significantly altered the levels of plasma insulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Histological analysis of liver and epididymal adipose tissue also revealed reduced fat deposition and adipocyte size. These results suggest that the probiotic mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus bv-77 can alleviate diet-induced obesity and associated diseases by regulating fat accumulation, lipid metabolism, and the levels of leptin and adiponectin. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Effect of Wolfiporia extensa, Atractylodes japonica, and Paeonia lactiflora Extracts and Their Mixtures on Improving Hepatic Function and Hepatocyte Protection

    복령, 백출, 작약 단독 및 혼합 추출물의 간건강 개선효과

    Hee-Jun Kim, Bohye Kim, Mi-Ra Lee, Chang-Eun Kim, Soo-Hyun Kim, Bong-Hwan Chung, Moonjin Ra, Yongjun Lee

    김희준, 김보혜, 이미라, 김창은, 김수현, 정봉환, 라문진, 이용준

    Herbal preparations are combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to exert additive and synergistic effects. In this study, we investigated the ... + READ MORE
    Herbal preparations are combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to exert additive and synergistic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of individual ethanol extracts of Wolfiporia extensa (TD1), Atractylodes japonica (TD2), Paeonia lactiflora (TD3), and mixtures thereof (TD4–TD7) on improvements in hepatic function and hepatocyte protection in human hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Prior to this experiment, we determined the appropriate dose for the treatment using TD1, TD2, TD3, and TD4–TD7 on the viability of HepG2 cells. Results showed that these extracts ameliorated cell toxicity against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced cell death in human hepatocyte carcinoma cells. Additionally, they significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. We also evaluated the effect of TD1–TD7 on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. We found that treatment with TD1–TD7 slightly attenuated the increase in AST and ALT levels compared to APAP-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that Wolfiporia extensa, Atractylodes japonica, and Paeonia lactiflora extracts and their mixtures could help improve hepatic function and induce hepatocyte protection. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Effects of Blue Spirulina on Acute Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in Mice

    블루 스피루리나의 궤양성 대장염 개선효과

    Mi-Ra Lee, Bohye Kim, Hee-Jun Kim, Jeong-Wook Jeon, Eun-Young Kim, Moonjin Ra, Bong-Hwan Chung, Yongjun Lee

    이미라, 김보혜, 김희준, 전정욱, 김은영, 라문진, 정봉환, 이용준

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a blue-green microalga with bioactive molecules. Blue spirulina is a phycocyanin extracted from spirulina. We investigated the protective ... + READ MORE
    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a blue-green microalga with bioactive molecules. Blue spirulina is a phycocyanin extracted from spirulina. We investigated the protective effects of spirulina (SP) and blue spirulina (BS) on a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. SP or BS was administered orally at 100 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively for 12 days, and colitis was induced by oral gavage with 2.5% DSS for 5 days on the 8th day. DSS-induced colitis mice showed severe bloody stools, diarrhea, weight loss, and colon shortening. However, SP and BS treatments improved the disease activity index (DAI) score and colon length. The improvement of colitis symptoms was validated by reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Moreover, SP and BS significantly reduced colonic myeloperoxidase and prostaglandin E2 activities in DSS-induced colitis. These results suggest that SP and BS have protective potential against DSS-induced colitis by suppressing excessive inflammatory response. The findings of this study suggest that SP and BS have substantial potential for the treatment of inflammatory colitis. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
  • Research Article

    Evaluating the Contents of Ginsenoside Based on the Growth of Ginseng Sprouts using QD-LED (Quantum Dot) plant lighting

    QD-LED(Quantum Dot) 식물조명 활용 새싹삼 생육에 따른 진세노사이드 함량의 변화

    Sang-Mi Jung, Hee-Jeong Eom, Sang-Yong Lee, Eun-Hee Seo, Yong-Duk Kim, Yong-Hwan Yoo, Bong-Hwan Chung, Moon-Jin Ra

    정상미, 엄희정, 이상용, 서은희, 김용득, 유용환, 정봉환, 라문진

    Several reports have previously suggested that quantum dot (QD) display, which is a display device that uses QDs to produce pure monochromatic ... + READ MORE
    Several reports have previously suggested that quantum dot (QD) display, which is a display device that uses QDs to produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light, have a potential for plant, algal and photosynthetic bacterial growth compared to the light-emitting diode (LED). We hypothesized that the QD-LED (Quantum Dot) system can provide desirable physiological benefits in Ginseng by improving its growth, viability, and active materials such as the ginsenoside family compounds. Therefore, this study focused on whether the total amount of ginsenoside family compounds can be increased during ginseng sprout growth under QD-LED system. Results showed that the amount of Rg1 and Rg3, the most abundant ginsenosides present in ginseng sprout, significantly increased in the root of ginseng sprouts but not in the leaves under the QD-LED system compared to the LED system. Furthermore, these findings suggest that ginseng sprout cultivation under the QD-LED system can lead to the development of high-productivity products. - COLLAPSE
    October 2021
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