• Review Article

    Utilization of Imaging Data from Different Sources for Bacterial and Fungal Diseases Detection in Major Crops in the Digital Era: A Review
    Ndosiri Josepha Ngwangum, Rupesh Tayade, Lay Liny, Jung-Beom Yoon, Yong-Suk Chung, Yoonha Kim
    Crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and soybean (Glycine … + READ MORE
    Crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) are the most important sources of food and ensure food security worldwide. Yield losses because of plant-bacteria and fungi are a major global concern. Therefore, various management technologies like diagnostic techniques for bacterial and fungal diseases are among the most important criteria for yield loss management from biotic diseases. In particular, the early detection, prediction, and classification of plant diseases are essential for improved monitoring of plant diseases and resources. Over the last few decades, the utilization of digital imaging systems for plant disease identification has received considerable attention. Moreover, digital imaging methods have facilitated the early detection of several plant diseases using both 2-dimensional image assessment and the current more accurate 3-dimensional image analysis techniques via knowledge-based approaches using MRI and CT. Simultaneously, state-of-the-art, machine and deep learning approaches with different algorithms have progressed to increase precision in disease detection. In this study, we review and discuss important bacterial and fungal diseases that occur in major food crops, the importance of their early detection, and different imaging systems used in plant disease detection, their applications, challenges, and prospects. A literature survey indicated that with the emergence of new tools, the accuracy of the digital imaging system for plant disease detection is bound to increase and has a wide scope in the agriculture sector for helping the farming community as well as increasing sustainability and food security. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022
  • Research Article

    Analysis of the Technical Efficiency of Potato Farmers in Mezam Division of the Northwest Region of Cameroon
    Louis Atamja, Sungjoon Yoo
    Potato is among the main cash and staple foods in Cameroon that has witnessed significant increase over the last decade. However, potato … + READ MORE
    Potato is among the main cash and staple foods in Cameroon that has witnessed significant increase over the last decade. However, potato production in Cameroon lags behind that of other African countries such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Egypt. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the technical efficiency of potato farmers in Santa and Kumbo sub division in the North-West Region of Cameroon. Data for this study were collected from potato farmers using multistage sampling technique and subjected to a stochastic frontier production function. The result showed that potato farmers have a mean technical efficiency of 0.62. This suggests that potato production can be significantly increased through improved and efficient use of resources. Credit access and farmers’ age were found to significantly influence the technical efficiency of potato farmers. As credit access improves the technical efficiency of potato farmers, it is important for the government to subsidize microfinance institutions to provide credit to farmers. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022
  • Research Article

    Effect of Apple Rootstocks on Early Productivity and Fruit Characteristics of ‘Fuji’ Apple Trees

    사과 대목 품종이 ‘후지’의 조기 생산성 및 과실특성에 미치는 영향

    Seong Heo

    허성

    Various apple rootstocks have been developed to induce higher yields and to enhance adaptation to different climatic and environmental conditions. However, the … + READ MORE
    Various apple rootstocks have been developed to induce higher yields and to enhance adaptation to different climatic and environmental conditions. However, the performance of apple rootstocks in South Korea has not been properly investigated. In this study, the influence of 13 apple rootstocks where scion cultivar ‘Fuji’ was grafted was evaluated by fruit count per tree, yields per tree, and fruit characteristics, such as average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, acidity, sugar content, and fruit firmness for two years. Apple trees grafted onto the M.9 series had more fruits per tree than those grafted onto other rootstocks. The fruit yield per tree of M.9 EMLA was much higher than that of M.26 EMLA. An analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the effect of rootstocks on fruit yield per tree when fruit count per tree was included in the linear model as a covariate. There was a significant difference in the estimated marginal means of P.22 and P.16 in the third and fourth year of planting, respectively, compared to other rootstocks. As a result of comparing the fruit characteristics produced by each rootstock, the fruit of M.9 EMLA was larger in length and width than those of other rootstocks, and fruit weight was much heavier. Principal component analysis showed that the fruits of M.9 EMLA were of higher quality than those of the other rootstocks. Therefore, M.9 EMLA was evaluated as being suitable for the Korean market where, large fruits are favored. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022
  • Research Article

    Efficacy of Five Essential Oils as Insecticides against the Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    에센셜 오일을 통한 열대거세미나방 살충효과 평가 및 분석

    Young Don Lee, In Ahn, Khalid Abdallah Hussein, Jin Ho Joo

    이영돈, 안인, 칼리드 후세인, 주진호

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is one of the main pests in corn (Zea mays L.). It reduces production … + READ MORE
    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is one of the main pests in corn (Zea mays L.). It reduces production by primarily damaging the leaves, stems, and fruits of corn, causing economic losses. Corn damage worldwide due to the fall armyworm is estimated to be at least $2,481 to $6,187 million. The insecticidal activity of five essential oils (rosemary, ginger, neem, lavender, and clove) on the 3rd instar stage of the fall armyworm was evaluated. The insecticidal activities of deltamethrin and five essential oils were evaluated using the immersion method. Rosemary and ginger essential oils showed the highest larval mortality (100% of fall armyworm larvae were killed) at a 1:500 dilution rate, whereas rosemary, ginger, neem, and clove essential oils, except lavender essential oil, showed 96% mortality at a 1:100 dilution rate. Using GC/MS analysis, the main compounds of rosemary essential oil were determined as 1,8-cineole (22.27%), a-pinene (15.01%), camphor (12.19%), b-pinene (8.11%), D-limonene (6.10%), and a-terpineol (4.97%). The results of this study suggest that rosemary and ginger essential oils could be used as potential biological control agents for controlling the fall armyworm. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022
  • Research Article

    Economical Analysis Comparing the Working Cost and Field Capacity of a Tractor-mounted Multi-working Machine and Individual Machines

    트랙터 부착형 다기능 작업기의 비용 및 포장능률 비교를 통한 경제성 분석

    Seungjun Kim, Moonkyeong Jang, Juseok Nam

    김승준, 장문경, 남주석

    In this study, an economic analysis of the cost and field capacity was conducted to prove the validity of developing and distributing … + READ MORE
    In this study, an economic analysis of the cost and field capacity was conducted to prove the validity of developing and distributing a tractor-mounted multi-working machine. The cases of using a multi-working machine and individual working machines were compared. The results showed that the total hourly cost of the multi-working machine was 308,805 KRW. Compared with individual working machines, the tractor-mounted multi-working machine can save 53.5% of the total hourly cost. The field capacity for the multi-working machine was 12 ares/hour. This is 60.0% higher than that of individual working machines. The cost per 10 ares working area was calculated using the hourly total cost and field capacity. The cost per 10 ares working area for the multi-working machine is 257,337 KRW, meaning that the multi-working machine can save 71.0% of the cost compared with individual working machines. Therefore, it is concluded that the economic validity of the multiworking machine is high. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022
  • Research Article

    Perception and Willingness of Gangwon Rice Farmers to use Bio-Char as a Substitute to Lime Manure

    바이오차에 대한 인식 및 대체 시용 의사 분석: 강원도 쌀 재배 농가를 중심으로

    Gyeong-Han Lee, Hye-Won Lee, Yong-Been Jo, Yun-Mi Hwang, Ji-Yong Lee

    이경한, 이혜원, 조용빈, 황윤미, 이지용

    While climate change is a major concern globally, carbon reduction is a significant challenge worldwide. South Korea has committed to raising its … + READ MORE
    While climate change is a major concern globally, carbon reduction is a significant challenge worldwide. South Korea has committed to raising its greenhouse gas reduction target by 2030 (from the current 26.3% reduction to 40% compared to 2018). This study investigated the perception of Gangwon rice farmers regarding to climate change due to carbon emissions and their awareness of Bio-Char. The study also examined whether rice producers are willing to substitute lime manure with Bio-Char upon receiving information regarding Bio-Char. Additionally, the degree of carbon isolation through the use of Bio-Char was examined. Results showed that use of Bio-Char pellets in rice cultivation contributes to approximately 14.3% of the target reduction in carbon emissions in the agricultural sector. The surveyed rice farmers were amenable to the use of Bio-Char for agricultural production. Particularly, the rate of substitution with Bio-Char increased with positive information regarding its application in agricultural production. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022
  • Research Article

    Comparative Chemical Analysis of Essential Oils of Lavandula angustifolia Cultivated in Seorak and Jiri Mountains of Korea
    Minji Hong, Hyejeong Jang, Minju Kim, Ponnuvel Deepa, Song Hee Ahn, Songmun Kim
    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, Lamiaceae) is the most popular aromatic plant globally and its essential oil (EO) has various cosmetic and … + READ MORE
    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, Lamiaceae) is the most popular aromatic plant globally and its essential oil (EO) has various cosmetic and therapeutic industrial applications. This study aimed to understand and compare the EO compositions of L. angustifolia grown in two different geographically remote locations (Seorak Mountain and Jiri Mountain) in Korea. The EO yields from the aboveground parts of lavender at the flowering stage were 0.04 ± 0.01% (Mt. Seorak) and 1.20 ± 0.38% (Mt. Jiri), while the EO colors were orange (Mt. Seorak) and pale yellow (Mt. Jiri). In total, 44 compounds were identified in the steam-distilled EOs of L. angustifolia cultivated in Mt. Seorak (35 compounds) and Mt. Jiri (30 compounds) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Among these, 21 compounds were detected in the EOs of both Seorak and Jiri samples, with linalool and linalyl formate being the most abundant compounds. Particularly, the amounts of linalool (46.15 ± 0.09%) and linalyl formate (39.81 ± 0.15%) were higher in the EOs isolated from the Jiri sample than in the EOs isolated from the Seorak sample (28.72 ± 0.35% and 27.53 ± 0.42%, respectively). Further, considerable amounts of β-caryophyllene and isoborneol were found in the EOs of both samples. High levels of linalool and linalyl formate in the EO may be associated with the pleasant aroma and high quality of lavender. - COLLAPSE
    31 July 2022