• Research Article

    Effects of Plant Extracts and the Antagonistic Microbe Bacillus velezensis UK1 on Mycelial Growth of the Lettuce Leaf Spot Pathogen Alternaria alternata KL-1

    상추 점무늬병을 일으키는 Alternaria alternata KL-1에 대한 식물추출물 및 길항미생물 Bacillus velezensis UK1의 균사생장 억제효과

    Kwang-Ho Lee, Jong-Hwan Shin, Noh-Hyun Lee, Ui-Jae Lee, Kyoung Su Kim

    이광호, 신종환, 이노현, 이의재, 김경수

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a popular vegetable. While there is growing concern about the safety of agricultural goods for human … + READ MORE
    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a popular vegetable. While there is growing concern about the safety of agricultural goods for human health and the environment, there is only limited information on the control of lettuce leaf spot pathogen Alternaria alternata in a safe and eco-friendly manner. Therefore, in this study, we tested the inhibitory effects of seven plant extracts and an antagonistic microbe (Bacillus velezensis UK1) on A. alternata KL-1. The most effective plant extract was Goldthread 80%, which exhibited 72% and 99% mycelial growth inhibition at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 1,000 µg/mL, respectively, followed by clove tree 70%, soapnut 40% + cinnamon oil 20%, and Lysimachia foenum-graeci Herba 5%. In contrast, rhubarb 92% + castor oil 3%, cinnamon oil 28% + tea plant 25%, and (Goldthread + rhubarb) 7% exhibited relatively low inhibitory effects, inhibiting mycelial growth by 52%, 40%, and 12%, respectively, at a concentration of 1,000 µg/mL. We also identified an effective antagonistic microbe, B. velezensis UK1. The inoculation of 10 µL of bacterial suspension at an OD600 of 1.0 exhibited approximately 47% mycelial growth inhibition when bacteria were inoculated 1 day before inoculation of the fungi on media. Our results demonstrate that plant extracts and the antagonistic microbe B. velezensis UK1 both have the potential to be utilized to control the pathogen that causes leaf spot, A. alternata. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Strength Evaluation of the Tractor Differential Case Under Braking Load

    제동 부하가 작용하는 트랙터 차동 장치 케이스의 강도 평가

    Hyun-woo Han, Jooseon Oh, Han-joo Yoo, Sung-Bo Shim

    한현우, 오주선, 유한주, 심성보

    In differential devices, unequal loading frequently occurs based on the differential ratio of the left and right wheels, and the degree of … + READ MORE
    In differential devices, unequal loading frequently occurs based on the differential ratio of the left and right wheels, and the degree of damage caused by such unequal loads is much greater than that of general damage. In an agricultural tractor, when a braking load that rapidly accelerates or stops the vehicle is applied, a large torque is applied to the differential case, and there is a high risk of damage in the bearing installation area, which is a particularly vulnerable part. In this study, the stress change according to the load applied to the tractor was confirmed through structural analysis of the differential case of the tractor, and a strength evaluation was performed. The results of structural analysis showed that most of evaluated stress conditions exhibited a safety factor of 1 or higher, confirming that there was no major concern. However, the need for structural reinforcement through design change to ensure safety was confirmed. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Aerial Parts and Roots of Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’

    흑맥문동 지상부와 뿌리 추출물의 산화방지 효과 및 세포독성 평가

    Yeo Wan Son, Smee Kang, Ji Sun Lee, Ju An Youn, Mae Hee Chiang

    손여완, 강스미, 이지선, 윤주안, 장매희

    Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’ is a perennial gardening plant, the bioactivities of which have rarely been studied. In the present study, the antioxidant … + READ MORE
    Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’ is a perennial gardening plant, the bioactivities of which have rarely been studied. In the present study, the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on intestinal cells of O. planiscapus were investigated. Methanol extracts were prepared from the aerial parts and roots of O. planiscapus and scavenging activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2΄-azobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid) radicals, Fenton reaction-induced lipid peroxidation, and Fe2+ ion chelation assays, and cytotoxicity was evaluated against HCT 116 human colon cancer and INT-407 human normal intestinal cells. Total polyphenol and flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the root extracts of O. planiscapus than in the aerial parts. Scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2΄-azobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid) radicals of the root extracts (IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.16 mg/mL, respectively) were also more potent than those of the aerial part extracts (IC50 values of 1.19 and 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). However, nitrite scavenging activities of both extracts were not significantly different. Both extracts inhibited the Fenton reaction-induced lipid peroxidation through reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and by chelating the Fe2+ ion. The extracts from the roots and aerial parts of O. planiscapus also exhibited concentration- dependent cytotoxicity against HCT 116 human colon cancer (IC50 of 51.6 and 98.4 µg/mL, respectively) and INT human normal intestinal (IC50 of 75.2 and 107.4 µg/mL, respectively) cells. Both extracts showed significantly higher potency to HCT 116 colon cancer cells. These results indicate that the extracts from roots and aerial parts of O. planiscapus contain biologically active compounds and can be used as a dietary source with health benefits. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Evaluation of the Growth and Leaf Color of Indoor Foliage Plants under High Temperature and Continuous Lighting Conditions at Different Light Intensity

    고온과 연속광 조건에서 광도별 실내 관엽식물의 생육 및 엽색 평가

    Jae-Hwan Lee, Hyun-Bin Kim, Sang-Yong Nam

    이재환, 김현빈, 남상용

    When designing interior spaces, the use of indoor foliage plants is considered as an integral part of providing a wonderful ambiance owing … + READ MORE
    When designing interior spaces, the use of indoor foliage plants is considered as an integral part of providing a wonderful ambiance owing to both their aesthetic and functional properties. Being indoors, these plants are subjected to continuous lighting conditions at high temperatures with varying light intensities, which affect their survival, growth, and leaf color quality. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of different light intensity levels (60, 120, and 180 µmol m-2 s-1) on the growth and leaf color of commonly used indoor foliage plants (Hoya carnosa f. variegata, Epipremnum aureum f. variegata, Rhapis excelsa, Hedera helix, Chamaedorea elegans, and Spathiphyllum wallisii) under high temperature and continuous lighting conditions. The results demonstrated that the growth parameters of the indoor foliage plants, after 4 weeks of treatment, were relatively better when grown under lower light intensity levels (60 and 120 µmol m-2 s-1) compared to when grown under a higher light intensity level (180 µmol m-2 s-1). The CIELAB L* and b* values of a majority of the indoor foliage plants increased proportionally with the light intensity level, indicating that under a higher light intensity, the leaves tend to express yellow tones. In addition, SPAD units decreased as the light intensity increased. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that indoor foliage plants are sensitive to light stress under high temperature and continuous lighting conditions; therefore, it is recommended to cultivate them under relatively low light conditions (60 and 120 µmol m-2 s-1). - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Washing and Packaging Methods to Prolong Storage and Maintain Quality of ‘Meosjinmasdongmu’ Wintering Radish

    월동무 ‘멋진맛동무’ 수확 후 세척 및 포장방법이 저장기간 및 품질에 미치는 영향

    Jung-Soo Lee

    이정수

    The effects of washing and storage methods on the quality of wintering radishes were evaluated in cold storage. Two sets of samples … + READ MORE
    The effects of washing and storage methods on the quality of wintering radishes were evaluated in cold storage. Two sets of samples were used in the case study: one was washed (C) and the other was unwashed (D). Some were placed in cardboard boxes (A) while others were placed in flexible intermediate bulk container bags (B). All the radishes were stored at 0°C. The weight loss rate of washed wintering radishes in corrugated boxes was lower than that of unwashed radishes in FIBDB. Wintering radish that had been washed and stored in corrugated boxes had an improved general appearance and marketability compared to those in the other treatments. The firmness and soluble solid content of the wintering radishes were not substantially affected by the pre- and post-storage treatments. An improved appearance was retained when the wintering radishes were washed and stored in the corrugated boxes at a temperature of 0°C. This resulted in delayed weight loss in radishes, and thus, a change in marketability. The study proved that washing wintering radishes followed by storage in corrugated boxes (A+C) at the appropriate temperature was effective in maintaining the quality of wintering radishes. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Antioxidative Activity and Whitening Effects of Rhus chinensis Methanol Extract

    오배자(Rhus chinensis) 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 및 미백 효능

    Sung-Jin Park, Yoon-Hee Choi

    박성진, 최윤희

    This study investigated the antioxidative activity and whitening efficacy of 80% methanol extract form Rhus chinensis(RCM). The total polyphenol content of … + READ MORE
    This study investigated the antioxidative activity and whitening efficacy of 80% methanol extract form Rhus chinensis(RCM). The total polyphenol content of RCM was 446.66 mg GAE/g, and the total flavonoid content was 33.50 mg QE/g. The electron donating ability of RCM at 50 µg/mL concentration was 94.75%. The ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power of RCM at 250 µg/mL concentration were 45.60% and 0.55, respectively. At 1,000 µg/mL, RCM reduced the intracellular tyrosinase activity by 40.35%. The results of this study suggest that RCM effectively inhibits tyrosinase activity. Thus, Rhus chinensis could be used as a whitening agent and antioxidant resource in functional food and cosmetics industries. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Preparation and Characterization of White Bread with added Cirsium setidens Nakai Powder

    곤드레 분말을 첨가한 식빵의 제조 및 특성

    Sun-Ho Lee

    이선호

    This study aimed to investigate the quality, characteristics, and antioxidant activity of bread with added Cirsium setidens Nakai powder (CSP). CSP was … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to investigate the quality, characteristics, and antioxidant activity of bread with added Cirsium setidens Nakai powder (CSP). CSP was added to bread prepared with concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% wheat flour. Results of the study show that the moisture content and pH of the bread decreased with increasing CSP content. Increasing the amount of CSP in the bread crumb decreased lightness (L) and redness (a), while yellowness (b) increased. Additionally, increasing the amount of CSP in the bread crust decreased lightness (L), while the redness (a) and yellowness (b) values increased. Texture analysis showed that the hardness, springiness, and gumminess of the bread increased with the addition of CSP, while the cohesiveness and chewiness decreased. Total phenol content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity increased with an increase in the amount of CSP. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Protective Mechanism of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii against Scopolamine-induced Cognitive Impairment

    엉겅퀴의 스코폴라민 유도 인지능 손상에 대한 개선 효과 및 보호 기전 탐색

    Min Jeong Kim, Byeong Wook Noh, Qi Qi Pang, Sanghyun Lee, Ji-Hyun Kim, Eun Ju Cho

    김민정, 노병욱, 팡치치, 이상현, 김지현, 조은주

    Scopolamine induces cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress, which leads to cognitive impairment. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which … + READ MORE
    Scopolamine induces cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress, which leads to cognitive impairment. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (CJM) improved cognitive impairment in scopolamine-injected mice. Mice were administered an ethyl acetate fraction of CJM (EACJM, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 14 days, and were injected intraperitoneally with scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg) for 8 days. To determine the protective effect of EACJM against memory loss in mice, T-maze, novel object recognition (NOR), and Morris water maze (MWM) tests were conducted using a scopolamine-treated mouse model. The protective mechanisms of EACJM in the brain were studied using western blotting. Scopolamine- induced memory dysfunction in mice was confirmed using behavioral tests, including T-maze, NOR, and MWM. However, results showed that EACJM effectively alleviated memory impairment in scopolamine-treated mice. Brain weight of EACJM-treated mice increased compared to that of scopolamine-injected mice. EACJM also downregulated acetylcholinesterase and upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, indicating that EACJM ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment. In addition, EACJM downregulated the B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein/ B-cell lymphoma-2 ratio, indicating that EACJM blocked the apoptosis of neuronal cells. These results indicated that EACJM may be a useful therapeutic agent for preventing cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Research Article

    Machine Learning for Nitrogen Content Estimation using SPAD Data in Shiranuhi (Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis)

    ‘부지화’의 SPAD 데이터로부터 질소함량을 추정하는 머신러닝 모델

    Won Pyo Park, Seong Heo

    박원표, 허성

    In recent years, to investigate the nitrogen content in plant leaves, the use of non-destructive and simple methods is preferred to that … + READ MORE
    In recent years, to investigate the nitrogen content in plant leaves, the use of non-destructive and simple methods is preferred to that of destructive, time-consuming, and expensive methods. In this study, several machine learning models (linear and polynomial regressions, stochastic gradient descent, artificial neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors, random forest, and gradient boosting) were applied to estimate the nitrogen content in leaves based on the linear relationship between the SPAD reading value and the nitrogen content in leaves of Shiranuhi (Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis). As the data of nitrogen content measured under the laboratory condition was insufficient, the data was increased using the bootstrapping method. Considering the model evaluation metrics, the gradient boosting model was selected as the most accurate model. The coefficient of determination of this model was the closest to 1 and the MSE, RMSE, and MAE all converged to 0, indicating that the error between the measured and predicted values was the smallest. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Notice

    Erratum to: Enhancement of Immune Activation using an Herbal Preparation (Product name: Cheongmokpye)

    Erratum to: 청목폐(제품명)의 면역 증진 효과

    Hee-Jun Kim, Bohye Kim, Mi-Ra Lee, Byung-Kook Sun, Wang-Kwon Kim, Bong-Hwan Chung, Moonjin Ra, Yongjun Lee

    김희준, 김보혜, 이미라, 선병국, 김왕권, 정봉환, 라문진, 이용준

    본 정오표는 Vol.33, Special Issue, pp.157-165, 2021에 게재 된 논문의 사사를 정정합니다. [수정 전] 본 연구는 강원도와 홍천군의 “2020년 바이오메디칼허브 공동연구개발사업”사업의 지원을 … + READ MORE
    본 정오표는 Vol.33, Special Issue, pp.157-165, 2021에 게재 된 논문의 사사를 정정합니다. [수정 전] 본 연구는 강원도와 홍천군의 “2020년 바이오메디칼허브 공동연구개발사업”사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구결과 이며, 이에 감사드립니다. [수정 후] 본 연구는 중소벤처기업부와 한국산업기술진흥원의“2020년 지역특화산업육성(비R&D, P0013157)”사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구결과입니다. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
  • Notice

    Erratum to: Effect of Wolfiporia extensa, Atractylodes japonica, and Paeonia lactiflora Extracts and Their Mixtures on Improving Hepatic Function and Hepatocyte Protection

    Erratum to: 복령, 백출, 작약 단독 및 혼합 추출물의 간건강 개선효과

    Hee-Jun Kim, Bohye Kim, Mi-Ra Lee, Chang-Eun Kim, Soo-Hyun Kim, Bong-Hwan Chung, Moonjin Ra, Yongjun Lee

    김희준, 김보혜, 이미라, 김창은, 김수현, 정봉환, 라문진, 이용준

    본 정오표는 Vol.33, Special Issue, pp.205-214, 2021에 게재 된 논문의 사사를 정정합니다. [수정 전] 본 연구는 강원도와 홍천군의 “2020년 바이오메디칼허브 공동연구개발사업”사업의 지원을 … + READ MORE
    본 정오표는 Vol.33, Special Issue, pp.205-214, 2021에 게재 된 논문의 사사를 정정합니다. [수정 전] 본 연구는 강원도와 홍천군의 “2020년 바이오메디칼허브 공동연구개발사업”사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구결과 이며, 이에 감사드립니다. [수정 후] 본 연구는 중소벤처기업부와 한국산업기술진흥원의“2020년 지역특화산업육성(비R&D, P0013157)”사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구결과입니다. - COLLAPSE
    31 March 2022
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